2 edition of Cux S-CdS cell formation utilizing reactive sputtering techniques. found in the catalog.
Cux S-CdS cell formation utilizing reactive sputtering techniques.
G. A. Armantrout
by Dept. of Energy, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, for sale by the National Technical Information Service in [Livermore, Calif.], [Springfield, Va
Written in English
|Contributions||Partain, L. D., Yee, J. H., United States. Dept. of Energy., Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.|
|The Physical Object|
formation of absorber precursors by sputtering, and alternative Cd-free buffer materials with improved band alignment. Reactive sputtering is used to grow dense and homogeneous precursor films containing all elements needed for CZTS absorbers. The addition of H2S gas to the inert Ar sputter. Reactive DC sputter deposition – wherein a metallic target is sputtered in an environment with a controlled partial pressure of reactive gas – can permit higher deposition rates and more precisely controlled film stoichiometry when compared to RF sputter deposition of native oxide, nitride, or .
As with all such things, there will be details to work out in order to establish a good working process procedure for your end product, but the Reactive Sputtering process can be a very useful tool to have available for creating molecular thin films, especially if there is a need to tinker some with atom ratios (stoichiometry) in the film in order to control properties such as resistivity for. Reactive sputtering of precursors for Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells.
Reactive magnetron sputtering processes are distin-guished by a high level of complexity. Posadowski points out three modes of magnetron operation dur-ing the reactive aluminum oxide synthesis with dif-ferent power supply characteristics reﬂected in the basic phenomena associated with the synthesis us-ing magnetron plasma [22,23]. Thin films of Cux(CdTe)yOz were grown by reactive rf co-sputtering using a simple method, in which all the growth parameters were kept constant except for the power applied to the copper target.
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Cux S-CdS cell formation utilizing reactive sputtering techniques (UCID) [G. A Armantrout] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying : G. A Armantrout. Get this from a library. Cux S-CdS cell formation utilizing reactive sputtering techniques. [G A Armantrout; United States. Department of Energy.; Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.].
Reactive sputtering is a promising technique for large-scale solar cell production. We grew thin chalcocite (Cu 2 S) films by sputtering a pure copper target in an H 2 S-Ar atmosphere.
When sputtered onto glass substrates, the layers showed excellent stoichiometric and crystallographic by: Using a two stage process, low temperature reactive co-sputtering followed by heat treatment, we have previously achieved a % efficient solar cell. Because the sputtered precursors contain non-equilibrium phases with unusual crystal structures, it is crucial to understand their nature and their conversion into Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (and secondary Cited by: This research presents a structural and photocarrier radiometric (PCR) characterization of Cu x (CdTe) y O z thin films grown using reactive radiofrequency co-sputtering.
Electronic distribution induced by variations in dopant concentration as a function of the position was studied using photocarrier radiometric by: 4. The cells show that Cu 2 S/CdS junctions equivalent to those formed by the topotaxial ion exchange method can be formed by sequential all‐vacuum deposition of CdS and Cu 2 S, and that magnetron sputtering does not cause damage that compromises their electrical performance.
The reactive sputtering process, and the resulting thin films, from a CuSn- and a Zn-target sputtered in H 2 S-atmosphere were investigated and described. A process curve of the system was presented and the influence of sputtering pressure and substrate temperature were examined.
Jaydeep Sarkar, in Sputtering Materials for VLSI and Thin Film Devices, Reactive sputtering. In reactive sputtering, sputtering of a target is conducted in the presence of a reactive gas (e.g., oxygen, nitrogen) that reacts with sputtered material and forms compound film on the substrate [41,42].Since the s, following the deposition of TaN for hybrid circuits, reactive.
deposit compound materials. This process is called reactive sputter deposi-tion. The changes of the deposition process as a function of the reactive gas addition are discussed in Chaps.
4 and 5. The former (Chap. 4) describes the well-known “Berg” model, which enables a better understanding of the general aspects of reactive magnetron.
formation in the gas phase or on the surface of the substrate. Also, process modeling for reactive sputtering has been well characterized by S. Berg . In reactive sputtering, in general, the deposition rate drops drastically at high enough partial pressure of the reactive gas.
At this point the compound is formed on the target surface and. Reactive sputtering of precursors for Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells Article (PDF Available) in Thin Solid Films (24) October with 95 Reads How we measure 'reads'.
Cu xO thin films have been deposited by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering at different target powers Ptar (– W) by fixing other process parameters: oxygen mass flow, argon mass flow and substrate temperature. Introduction.
Definition: Reactive Sputtering is a process where a target of one chemical composition (e.g. elemental Si) is sputtered in the presence of a gas or a mixture of gasses (e.g. Ar + O 2) that will react with the target material to form a coating of a different chemical composition (e.g.
compound SiO 2).Argon is in most cases the main gas and the amount of a reactive gas introduced. The reactive sputtering process is very simple to use as long as one wants to deposit fully formed compounds.
If, however, an intermediate composition is required it is necessary to use quite advanced process control. Reactive sputtering from an elemental target in argon with the addition of one reactive gas have been extensively studied.
Also studies of reactive cosputtering have been reported. Target poisoning is one of the major drawbacks of reactive sputtering (RS) affecting the stoichiometry of a compound film depositing onto a substrate. The dynamics of RS has been understood in terms of the well-known ‘Berg’s Model’ (Berg et al.
in Thin Solid Films; Berg and Nyberg in Thin Solid Films (2), ) which demonstrates that by reducing the size of a. We will present an extension of the basic reactive sputtering model that allows for the formation of an arbitrary thickness of the compound layer at the target surface.
From this model it is possible to examine the layer thickness dependence on the major processing parameters (reactive gas. for reactive sputtering processes.
VT&CApril, 2.n, Vacuum technology and the equipment for deposition and etching of thin films. Moscow, 3. Ohsaki, Y. Tachibana, J. Shimizu, T, Oyama. High-rate deposition of SiO 2 by modulated DC reactive sputtering in the transition mode without a feedback.
We have investigated reactive sputtering of copper and silicon by oxygen in the ion energy regime near the sputtering threshold, using low‐energy ion‐beam and quartz‐crystal microbalance techniques.
Surface oxidation is observed to increase the ion energy threshold for copper sputtering, and oxide film growth by low‐energy ion bombardment of copper and silicon is characterized. The reactive sputtering of oxides and nitrides R P Howson Dept of Physics, Loughborough University of Technology, Loughborough, Leics., UK.
LEll 3TU. Abstrad: Recent developments in the techniques used to produce surface layers of oxides and nitrides by reactive sputtering are considered. These techniques have to give films which can be. Critical Reactive Sputtering Process Control Note #03/08 with the HPQS-IP Residual Gas Analyzer PVD or sputtering processes are used to deposit metals (Al, Cr) and compound layers such as SiO 2, ZnO (a transparent conductive oxide or TCO), and TiN.
PVD processes need to be properly tuned for optimal deposition rate and optical. 2. Definition of conditions for the reactive sputtering model In order to understand the influence of different process-ing parameters for the reactive sputtering process, we will try to keep the number of parameters as low as possible.
To satisfy this goal, we have as a first order approximation neglected some effects that may influence the.than physical sputtering deposition as applied in this paper. Different from physical sputtering deposition, additional reactive gas flow such as high pure oxygen (O2) is used in reactive sputtering deposition to supply O2 source for the oxidation reactions of sputtering .A resource on Reactive Sputtering for engineers, technologists, managers and anyone interested.
Image courtesy of Angstrom Sciences, Inc. view. Latest Articles. Basic Concepts of Reactive Sputtering. Submitted by martynas on Mon, Why is Reactive Sputtering important? –Bill Sproul, the inventor of mass spectrometer based.